Mistakes in Writing Lesson Plans
(and how to avoid them )
Dr. Robert Kizlik
|Successful teachers are invariably good planners and thinkers.
In my career as a teacher and teacher educator, I have read and evaluated thousands
of lesson plans written by education students at all levels. On a consistent basis,
I see mistakes that distort or weaken what the plans are supposed to communicate.
You can improve your lesson-planning skills by first thinking carefully about
what the lesson is supposed to accomplish. There is no substitute for this. In
teaching students how to develop lesson plans, the following are mistakes I have
observed that students make most often:
- The objective of the lesson
does not specify what the student will actually do that can be observed.
- The lesson assessment is
disconnected from the behavior indicated in the objective.
- The materials specified
in the lesson are extraneous to the actual described learning activities.
- The instruction in which
the teacher will engage is not efficient for the level of intended student learning.
- The student activities
described in the lesson plan do not contribute in a direct and effective way to
the lesson objective.
A lesson plan that contains one or more of these mistakes needs rethinking and
revision. Below is a rationale and guide to help you develop effective lesson
plans and avoid the five common mistakes.
- FIRST, YOU MUST KNOW
HOW TO PLAN
The purpose of a lesson plan is really quite simple; it is to communicate. But,
you might ask, communicate to whom? The answer to this question, on a practical
basis, is YOU! The lesson plans you develop are to guide you in helping your students
achieve intended learning outcomes. Whether a lesson plan fits a particular format
is not as relevant as whether or not it actually describes what you want, and
what you have determined is the best means to an end. If you write a lesson plan
that can be interpreted or implemented in many different ways, it is probably
not a very good plan. This leads one to conclude that a key principle in creating
a lesson plan is specificity. It is sort of like saying, "almost any series
of connecting roads will take you from Key West Florida to Anchorage Alaska, eventually."
There is however, one any only one set of connecting roads that represents the
shortest and best route. Best means that, for example getting to Anchorage by
using an unreliable car is a different problem than getting there using a brand
new car. What process one uses to get to a destination depends on available resources
So, if you agree that the purpose of a lesson plan is to communicate, then, in
order to accomplish that purpose, the plan must contain a set of elements that
are descriptive of the process. Let's look at what those elements should be.
- THE LESSON PLAN
- Preliminary Information
- The development of a lesson plan begins somewhere, and a good place to start
is with a list or description of general information about the plan.
This information sets the boundaries or limits of the plan. Here is a good list
of these information items: (a) the grade level of the students for whom the plan
is intended; (b) the specific subject matter (mathematics, reading, language arts,
science, social studies, etc.); (c) if appropriate, the name of the unit of which
the lesson is a part; and (d) the name of the teacher.
- The parts each part of
a lesson plan should fulfill some purpose in communicating the specific content,
the objective, the learning prerequisites, what will happen, the sequence of student
and teacher activities, the materials required, and the actual assessment procedures.
Taken together, these parts constitute an end (the objective), the means (what
will happen and the student and teacher activities), and an input (information
about students and necessary resources). At the conclusion of a lesson, the assessment
tells the teacher how well students actually attained the objective.
In a diagram, the process looks something like this:
- Let's look at each part
separately.Input: This part refers to the physical materials, other resources,
and information that will be required by the process. What are these inputs? First
of all, if you have thought about what the lesson is supposed to accomplish, the
inputs are much easier to describe. In general categories, inputs consist of:
- Information about the
students for whom the lesson is intended. This information includes, but is not
limited to the age and grade level of the students, and what they already know
about what you want them to learn.
- Information about the amount
of time you estimate it will take to implement the lesson.
- Descriptions of the materials
that will be required by the lesson, and at some point, the actual possession
of the materials.
- Information about how you
will acquire the physical materials required.
- Information about how to
obtain any special permissions and schedules required. For example if your lesson
plan will require a field trip, you must know how to organize it. If your lesson
will require a guest speaker (fire chief, lawyer, police officer, etc.) you must
know how to make arrangements for having that person be at the right place at
the right time
This is the actual plan. If you have done the preliminary work (thinking,
describing the inputs), creating the plan is relatively easy. There are a number
of questions you must answer in the creating the plan:
- What are the inputs? This
means you have the information (content description, student characteristics,
list of materials, prerequisites, time estimates, etc.) necessary to begin the
- What is the output? This
means a description of what the students are supposed to learn.
- What do I do? This means
a description of the instructional activities you will use.
- What do the students do?
This means a description of what the students will do during the lesson.
- How will the learning be
measured? This means a description of the assessment procedure at the end of the
As an example, here is a template that has been used successfully to teach students
to write lesson plans:
- Lesson Plan Format:
Grade Level________________________________ Date___________________________
- Content: Indicate what
you intend to teach, and identify which forms of knowledge (concept, academic
rule, skill, law and law-like principles and/or value knowledge) will be included
in the lesson.
- Prerequisites: Indicate
what the student must already know or be able to do in order to be successful
with this lesson. (You would want to list one or two specific behaviors necessary
to begin this lesson).
- Instructional Objective:
Indicate what is to be learned - must be a complete objective.
- Instructional Procedures:
Description of what you will do in teaching the lesson, and, as appropriate, includes
a description of how you will introduce the lesson to the students, what actual
instructional techniques you will use, and how you will bring closure to the lesson.
Include what specific things students will actually do during the lesson.
- Materials and Equipment:
List all materials and equipment to be used by both the teacher and learner and
how they will be used..
- . Assessment/Evaluation:
Describe how you will determine the extent to which students have attained the
instructional objective. Be sure this part is directly connected to the behavior
called for in the instructional objective.
- . Follow-up Activities:
Indicate how other activities/materials will be used to reinforce and extend this
lesson. Include homework, assignments, and projects.
- Self-Assessment (to be
completed after the lesson is presented): Address the major components of the
lesson plan, focusing on both the strengths, and areas of needed improvement.
A good idea is to analyze the difference between what you wanted (the objective)
and what was attained (the results of the assessment).
Of course, there is an immense difference between being able to plan and actually
being able to carry out the plan. However, if you have thought carefully about
where you are going before you begin writing your plan, the chances of your success,
as well as the success of your students, are much greater.